OF BIOCHEMICAL TECHNIQUES
techniques refer to a set of assays, procedure and approaches that helps to
researcher in order to identify or study
the materials found inside the organisms and its chemical reactions.
BIOCHEMISTRY RELATED TO APPLIED
is mixed with both clinical and applied discipline that involves in is both
analytical & quantitative methods in order
to explain the impact of relationship in molecular level.
biochemical research, experimental models are first subjected to qualitative
evaluation i.e., the complex device is damaged down & components are
separated & identified.
APPLICATION OF BIOCHEMICAL TECHNIQUES
gives an opportunity for researchers and scientists to discover the modern
research techniques within the discipline of biochemistry .
could be used each for separation & identity of macromolecules & micro
molecules. In biochemistry, the term
macromolecule is applied to the four biopolymers ( nucleic acids, proteins ,
carbohydrates & lipids ) in addition to non-polymeric molecules with high
method involves small solutes diffuse from a low concentration solution to high
conc. solution across a semi permeable membrane when equilibrium is reached.
The porous membrane
selectively pass small solute with maintaining of large solute in solution . it
is separation process of molecules primarily
based on size .
technique which is used in the separation of mixture is known as
chromatographic technique. Chromatography technique is a laboratory technique.
Chromatography is an analytical
approach dealing with the separation of closely related compound from a
aggregate mixture . These include protein, peptides, amino acid, lipids, carbohydrates,
§ Mobile phase: A
solvent that flows through the supporting medium
§ Stationary phase: A
layer and the coating of the supporting medium that interact with the analyte
§ Supporting medium is a
solid surface on which the stationary phase is bounded or coated.
The importance of the
chromatography is versatility and small quantities of a material can be
separated with case it is fast and accurate.
§ PAPER CHROMATOGRAPHY
It is a beneficial method in oreder to seprate the
combination of amino acid, sugar, chemical substances, lipid, urea in solution.
Separation is primarily based on a
liquid-liquid partition of the compounds.
§ HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY
It is used to separate elements from complex solution by the use of chemical interactions between
the materials being analyzed & the chromatography column.
The motion of charged ions
under the effect of electrical field that results in migration towards the
oppositely charged electrode is called electrophoresis .OR
It is the motion of dispersed particle
relative to a fluid under the influence of spatially uniform electric field
Importance in the separation of
macromolecules such DNA, RNA and protein
TYPES OF ELECTROPHORESIS
§ PAPER ELECTROPHORESIS
Separation of charged particles is determined
by using differences in their migration size which varies with electric charge
, length of particle & form of particles.
§ GEL ELECTROPHORESIS,
It is used for the separation
of proteins & nucleic acid. This technique
helps for separation of molecules based
on their size and charge.
§ ISOELECTRIC FOCUSSING.
Basically used for purification
of proteins. This technique is primarily
based on the immobilization of the molecules at isoelectric pH at some point of
is commonly used for the measurement of transmittance of reflectance of
solution, transparent or opaqness in sample.
It is a method to measure how
much a chemical absorbs light, by measuring the intensity of light as a beam of
light passes through sample solution.
Also it gives the quantitative dimension of
the mirrored image molecules.
Its importance in medical
research, development of medicine research on vitamin and hormones etc.
It is analytical techniques in
which chemical species are ionized and these ions are sorted based on their
mass to charge ratio
Mass spectroscopy is used in
pharmaceutical, clinical, environmental, Biotechnology
Is a device for separating particles from a solution according to there
length, shape, viscosity, density of the medium.
a process in which the centrifugal force are applied for the sedimentation of
the heterogeneous mixture with a centrifuge
Used for the
separation of molecules on the basis of density and used in industries research