Eutrophication which will lead to the change in ecosystem,

Eutrophication is given by the word
‘eutrophic’ which comes from the Greek word eutrophos
meaning well-fed. Eutrophication
is when the environment is enriched in nutrients which will lead to the change
in ecosystem, mostly results in problems associated
with macrophyte, algal or cyanobacterial growth. There are several characteristic
and easily noticeable signs of heavily euthropic bodies of water such as low
water transparency, water bloom and lush aquatic plant growths and dense
overgrowth. Low water transparency can be due to excess microscopic algae and
their residue in the water. Therefore, sunlight which is required for plants to
grow can only penetrate the very upper layer of the water, whereas deeper
levels are completely dark and plants are not able to grow there anymore.
Nutrient-rich waters are most often in great numbers inhabited by species that
find the certain conditions most favourable. Those are, for example, floating
aquatic plants – several species of duckweed, greater Duckweed, Frogbit, which
all absorb the nutrients straight from the water

Eutrophication is caused by nutrient
enrichment in water. The enrichment of water by nutrients can be a natural origin also knows
as natural eutrophication but it is often gradually increased by human
activities such overuse of fertilizers at agricultural areas and illegal disposal
of sewage from cities and industrial waste water. For instance, overuse of
fertilizers leads to leaching and erosion from fertilized agricultural areas. Agriculture
practice and the use of fertilisers in the soil contribute to the accumulation
of nutrients. Nitrates and phosphates which are the main nutrients causing
eutrophication from fertilizers flow into river. Nutrient enrichment of lakes,
rivers called eutrophication. This will then lead to growth of green algae on
surface of ponds and lakes, which is known as algae bloom. Algae reduces light
penetrates into the water eventually, aquatic plants die. When the algae die,
it is decomposed by aerobic bacteria by using oxygen. Biochemical oxygen demand
increases in water which means less oxygen supplies in the water. Therefore,
aquatic animal die. Untreated sewage will prevent light penetration into water
and causes eutrophication.

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There are several ways to control
eutrophication. First of all, instead of using fertilizers farmer should
practise biological pest control methods. Biological control of pest relies on
natural predation rather than using chemicals. Untreated sewage reduces light
penetration and increase bacteria decomposition which leads to eutrophication
as well. To prevent this, treating sewage before it enters rivers will do. Septic
tank can be used to treat sewage from an individual building.

Septic tanks treat
sewage at the place where it is located, rather than transporting the waste
through a treatment plant or sewage system. Septic tanks are usually used to
treat sewage from an individual building. For more info, refer to