Besides describe the differences and similarities between a pair

Besides
there is Contrastive Analysis, in CT there is also another discipline named
Contrastive Linguistics. In Contrastive Analysis we learn about a way to
identifying a word, phrase, clause and sentence differences and similarities.
While in Contrastive Linguistics it is a kind of linguistic approach which has contribution
to describe the differences and similarities between a pair language. This
paper will discuss about CL and other discipline TS (translation studies), how
the relation between this two discipline and the effect of corpora which
applied in CL and TS.

Contrastive Linguistics is
defined as “the systematic synchronic study of
similarities and differences in the structure and use of two or more language
varieties, carried out for theoretical or practical purposes.” (Bugarski
1991:77). As we know this contrastive linguistics is a science that compares
the two languages in terms of linguistics. Factors to be considered this
comparison is a form of error or deviation by individuals who have the ability
of acquiring second languages. In CL which is the object of study of this
science is a linguistic principle such as phonology, morphology, sentence
order. CL is an appropriate method for analyzing the principle of difference
and equality in dialect language, which is also useful for foreign-language
teaching or second-language teaching. On other hand, Translation Studies is the discipline that deals with the study of
translation, and translation is “a skill, a savoir-faire, that consists in
going through the translating process, and being capable of solving the
translation problems that arise in each case” (Hurtado, 2001: 25) TS itself is not only cooperate with
linguistics discipline but the other too. Such as have relation in sociology,
psychology, culture and many more.

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Both CL and TS was dominated by the lack of
academic status of the latter. As the relationship between Contrastive
Linguistics and Translation Studies before corpus-based approach is available
to this discipline, both are related to language and linguistics in general and
deal with two languages at the same time. The interest which related to CL and
TS led to a substional amount of
literature on the relationship between these two disciplines in early stage. (Bausch 1972; Raabe 1972; Kühlwein et al. 1981) There
are two issues related to the two disciplines : 1) for contrastive analysis is
about the usefulness of translation equivalence as tertium comparationis, and
2) for translation studies is the application of the result of CA in different
aspects.

Corpus is called as a collection of pieces of language
that are selected and ordered according to explicit linguistic criteria in
order to be used as a sample of the language. (Sinclair 1995:17). Besides that
corpora offer wide range of possibilities for linguistic analysis that makes
the researcher have a some relevant cases in different contexts and more
complex types of corpora applied in different purposes. In the following years
CL has decreased interest by researchers which have less interested in its use.
However in 1990s there was an urge from the proliferation of electronic corpora
to CL which is “Parallel corpora i.e. multilingual corpora are a valuable
source of data; indeed they have been the principal reason for the revival of
contrastive linguistics that has taken place in the 1990s.” (Salkie 2002).
Previously CL was concerned with linguistic systems, and this is how corpora
have a stake in involving language using which more accessible and the field of
CL has expanded. Before corpora available the relationship between CL and TS
focused on static concepts i.e. tertium comparationis or in other words means
the applicability of contrastive result to translation there is no further
specifications. We can take some important points that between CL and TS show
parallel evolution with a clearer shift of focus from a descriptive,
theoretical perspective which, of course, the language of the corporation also
plays a role. On the other side, corpus-based
TS depend on the contrastive
methods in different linguistics levels on every purpose.

In conclusion, Contrastive Linguistics and Translation
Studies working on the same object, they “are interested in seeing how ‘the
same thing’ can be said in other ways, although each field uses this
information for different ends” (Chesterman 1998: 39). Both are dealing with
the corpus which has potential to make CL and TS cooperate rely on same type of
data, same software tools and absolutely in the same corpus-based applications.